Author Archives: Shridev Sharma

बाबा साहब अम्बेडकर की दृष्टी में मनुवाद (भाग 1)

मनुवाद आश्चर्यजनक रूप से आज भी चर्चा में है। बाबा साहब अम्बेडकर के हाथ से लिखी एक पांडुलिपि में मनु के अछूत विरोधी सिद्धान्तों का विस्तार से उल्लेख है। बाबा साहब के अनुसार हिन्दू सामजिक व्यवस्था वर्णों और व्यक्तियों के बीच की असमानता पर आधारित है। बाबा साहब अपने काल तक मनु के सिद्धांतो को जीवित देखते।

Untouchables of Malabar. बाबा साहब अम्बेडकर की दृष्टी में मनुवाद, shridev sharma

उनके अनुसार पेशवा राज में अछूतों को पूना में शाम के तीन बजे से सवेरे नौ बजे तक घुसने की इजाजत नहीं थी। तब शरीर की छाया लंबी होती है। यदि ये छाया किसी ब्राम्हण पर पड़ जाती तो वह अपवित्र हो उठता – इससे बचने के लिये अछूतों पर रोक लगा दी गयी। जानवर या कुत्ते नगर में आराम से घूमते पर अछूत समाज नहीं।
अछूत जमीन पर थूक नहीं सकते थे। उन्हें थूकने के लिये गले में मिट्टी का बर्तन टांग कर चलना पड़ता। यदि उनके थूक पर किसी हिन्दु का पैर पड़ जाता तो वह अपवित्र हो उठता न, इसीलिये। उसे एक काँटेदार झाड़ी से जमीन को साफ़ करते हुए चलना पड़ता। ताकि उसके पैरों के निशान साफ़ हो जाएँ। यदि कोई ब्राम्हण सामने से आ जाता तो अछूत धरती पर मुँह रख कर लेट जाता ताकि उसके शरीर की छाया ब्राम्हण को छूकर अपवित्र न कर दे।
महाराष्ट्र में शूद्र को गले में या कमर में काल धागा पहनना पड़ता ताकि उसको पहचाना जा सके। गुजरात में पहचाना जा सकने के लिये गले में सींग लटकाना पड़ता।
पंजाब में अछूत को काँख में झाड़ू दबाकर घूमना पड़ता।
बम्बई के अछूतों को सिर्फ़ फटे पुराने कपडे पहनने की इजाजत थी। यदि उन्हें कपड़ा बेचा जाता तो दुकानदार उसे फाड़ पुरना कर देता।
मालाबार में अछूत एक मंजिला से ऊपर घर नहीं बना सकते थे।न ही वह अपने मुर्दों का दाह संस्कार कर सकते थे। उन्हें छाता लेकर चलना मना था। जूता या सोने के गहने पहनने की इजाजत नहीं थी। वे दूध भी नहीं दुह सकते थे।
दक्षिण भारत के अछूतों को शरीर के कमर के ऊपर के हिस्से में कपड़ा पहनने की मनाही थी।इसी तरह उनकी स्त्रियों को भी कमर के ऊपर का हिस्सा बिना ढके रहना पड़ता।

कन्हैय्या बन रहा काला पहाड़

गार्जियन में मार्क टाउनसैण्ड की ब्राइटन से रणभूमि तक : कैसे चार किशोर जिहाद की ओर प्रेरित हुए शीर्षक से प्रकाशित समाचार बेहद भयावह है।

kanhaiya ban raha kala pahad, shridev sharma, कन्हैय्या बन रहा काला पहाड़

यह उन किशोरों के बारे में है जो ब्रिटिश मूल के गैर मुस्लिम थे और जिहाद के प्रचार में डूब कर मुस्लिम बने। आइसिस के जिहाद का हिस्सा बन लड़े और मारे गये।

ऐसी ही एक रिपोर्ट अमेरिका के मिसीसिपी की रहने वाली जाएलिन यंग की है जो एक पुलिस अधिकारी की बेटी है। उसने अपना धर्म बदला मुस्लिम बनी और जिहाद लड़ने सीरिया के लिये निकल पड़ने की कोशिश में एअरपोर्ट पर पकड़ी गयी।

कन्हैय्या खालिद अनिर्वाण और उनके गुरुओं की चलायी राष्ट्रवाद की बहस के पीछे मुस्लिम शोषण एक बड़ा मुद्दा है।

फिलिस्तीन,कोसोवो,काश्मीर,चेचन्या विश्व भर के जिहादी मुसलामानों की आजादी की लड़ाई का बड़ा प्रतीक हैं।

इस लड़ाई में क्रूरता तथा कामुकता चरम पर है।इस में स्त्री कसाई के हाथों में पड़े पशु की तरह है।

कन्हैय्या तथा उनके साथी इस लड़ाई के पोस्टर बन गये हैं। उनका गांधी प्रेम सिर्फ गांधी जी के खिलाफत आंदोलन का समर्थन करने के कारण है।

दलित शोषण को रोकने की लड़ाई के सर्वोच्च व्यक्तित्व बाबा साहब थे। वे संवैधानिक भारत में अस्पृश्यता का उन्मूलन कर गये। इस तरह का अमानुषिक अपमान न हो इसके लिये क़ानून बना और लागू है।

संविधान में अस्पृश्यता के कारण दलित बने हिंदु भाइयों को सशक्त बनाने के लिये आरक्षण है।

बाबा साहब अम्बेडकर इससे संतुष्ट थे और उन्होंने कहा था की बीते कल को भुला आगे की ओर बढ़ने की आवश्यकता है।

परंतु जिहादी आंदोलन के प्रवक्ता तथा मुख्य मॉडल कन्हैय्या दलितों को भारत तथा नागरिकों से लड़ाने पर तुले हैं।

एक तरफ वो हैं जो समाज के हर वर्ग का सशक्ति करण चाहते हैं समरसता चाहते हैं। दूसरी तरफ वो हैं जो देश में क्रांति चाहते हैं। इसे ईराक और सीरिया की तरह जिहादी लड़ाई तथा माओवादी आतंकवाद में धकेल इस की हर प्रगति को रोक देना चाहते हैं।

गांधी और अम्बेडकर राजनैतिक रूप से दो अलग ध्रुव थे पर दोनों ने भारत को स्वराज्य और संविधान की राह दिखायी।

अम्बेडकर आहत थे पर भारत माता के पुत्र थे। उन्होंने वर्णवादी व्यवस्था को छोड़ा पर धर्मवादीव्यवस्था को नहीं और अपने लोगों के साथ उस बुद्ध धर्म के अनुयायी बन गये जो भारतवर्ष का ही है।

आशा है कि भगवान सद्बुद्धि देगा और प्रसिद्धि तथा प्रतिष्ठा के लिये ये युवक काला पहाड़ नहीं बन जाएंगे।

जश्न-ए-जिहादी

कन्हैय्या के अनुसार क्रांति के कारण से किये जा रहे इस्लामिक सशस्त्र संघर्ष पर दोषारोपण करना उसे झूठा बदनाम करने जैसा है यह वैसे ही गलत है जैसे वामपंथी सशस्त्र संघर्ष को दोष देना।

जश्न-ए-जिहादी, jashn-e-jihadi, shridev sharma

इस्लामिक आंतकवाद को दोष देने से पहले उसके समय को समझिये और आतंकवाद करने की मजबूरी को समझिये।
जहाँ जरूरत पड़े और उनसे मदद मिले वहाँ उनकी मदद ले कर आगे बढ़ने में कुछ भी गलत नहीं है।

कन्हैया ने इतिहास पर हमले को गलत बताया।सच्चा इतिहास उनके अनुसार वह है जो मुसलमान के साथ हुए अन्याय को साबित करे।उसे हथियार उठा कर लड़ने की जरूरत क्यों पड़ी। दुनिया में उसकी क्या जगह थी, यह स्थापित करे तथा उसका समर्थन करे।

इसके लिये उन्होंने आधार भूत सहमति बनाने पर बल दिया। उनके लोकतंत्र की अवधारणा इतिहास के आधार पर है। वो इस देश के इतिहास को और आज के लोकतंत्र को साथ जोड़ना चाहते हैं। वो भारत को इस्लामिक लोकतंत्र में बदलना चाहते हैं। ये इस्लामिक ताकत ही तो थी जो इस देश को ब्राम्हणों से और उनके विचार के प्रभाव से मुक्त करा सकी।

पर इसमें यदि विरोधी ताकत है तो संघ है। इसलिए वे संघ को ध्वस्त करना चाहते हैं।

कन्हैया छाती ठोक कर आतंकवादी जिहाद को समर्थन दे रहा है। हम अपना भविष्य और अपने आने वाली पीढ़ी का भविष्य बचा पाएँगे या नहीं? ये एक बड़ा प्रश्न है।

Kanhaiya Kumar Full speech 29th March, Convention Center | Jashn-e-Azadi | Controversial remarks

गद्दारों से आजादी… न कि गद्दारों को आजादी

“अभिव्यक्ति की आजादी” की आड़ में कश्मीर के आतंकवादी जेहादियों को समर्थन का साहस तभी आता है जब धन हो, समर्थन हो, और विवेक नष्ट हो गया हो ।

गद्दारों से आजादी | Freedom of Speech

भारत में माओवादी आतंकवादी पिछले दस साल में बहुत तेजी से बढ़ें हैं। एक समय बंगाल में वामपंथियों ने नक्सलियों को कुचल दिया था। पर वो एक अलग पीढ़ी थी। आज वाम पंथी सत्ता खो बैठे हैं। अलगथलग हो कर हताशा में हैं। इन के लोग अखबारों और अफसर-शाही में हैं। भारत के बौद्धिक धरातल पर इनका दबदबा अभी भी है। ये अपने अस्तित्व की लड़ाई लड़ रहे हैं। इनमे विभाजन से पूर्व के दिनों की एकता का जोश भर गया है। इन के अलग धड़े अब एक हो रहे हैं। बाहर से ये जो मर्जी कहें, पर अंदर से इन्हें सशस्त्र संघर्ष से भी परहेज नहीं।

पिछले दस वर्षों में माओवादी आतंकवादियों ने जंगलों पर कब्जा कर लिया है। इनका विस्तार हैरानी भरा है। ये उन गृह मंत्रियों के काल में फले फूले जिनमें से एक ने इशरत जहाँ को न्यायालय में आतंवादी मानने से मना कर दिया, तो दूसरे ने सच्चे राष्ट्रभक्त संघ को आतंकवादी कह डाला। अब ये भारत के अनादि काल से चले आ रहे प्राचीनतम राष्ट्रवाद की तुलना मुसोलिनी के फासीवाद से कर रहे हैं।

भारत में स्वयं सेवक संघ का हाल मुस्लिमब्रदर हुड जैसा होगा ये मूर्खता पूर्ण भ्रम फैलाने में इन्हें ज़रा भी संकोच नहीं है

सोवियत-पतन के बाद दक्षिण एशिया में सोवियत सर्वहारा संयुक्त राष्ट्र को स्थापित करने का सपना ये कामरेड खुली आँखों से देख रहे हैं। भारत में स्वयं सेवक संघ का हाल मुस्लिमब्रदर हुड जैसा होगा ये मूर्खता पूर्ण भ्रम फैलाने में इन्हें ज़रा भी संकोच नहीं है।

भारत के अंदर कुछ शिक्षित, भ्रष्ट और व्यक्तिगत महत्वाकांक्षा के लिये देशद्रोह तक करने से न हिचकने वालों के लिये मार्क्स का दर्शन और लेनिन-स्टालिन का खूनी तांडव मार्ग दर्शक बन गया है। इनके लिये राष्ट्रवाद अंग्रेजों की चालबाजी और फासीवाद के अलावा कुछ नहीं है।

हो सकता है कि आप माने कि ये सब मेरे मन का भय जनित भ्रम है । अगर ये भ्रम ही होगा , मुझे अपार संतोष होगा। मैं पिछले तीन से अधिक दशकों से दिल्ली को देख रहा हूँ ।इस दौरान राष्ट्रवादी राजनैतिक दर्शन के फलस्वरूप प्राप्त संवैधानिक मूल अधिकारों में से एक, अभिव्यक्ति की आजादी, की आड़ में कश्मीर के आतंकवादी जेहादियों के समर्थन में संसद तक, ऐसा शर्मनाक नंगा नाच मैंने पहली बार देखा है। ये संसद पर हमले का छाती ठोक कर समर्थन कर रहे हैं। सर्वोच्च न्यायालय को हत्यारा और सैनिकों को बलात्कारी ठहरा रहे हैं। ये संविधान की आड़ में संविधान विरोधी गतिविधियाँ कर रहे हैं। ऊपर से छाती ठोक कर झुठला भी रहे हैं।

इतना साहस तभी आता है जब धन हो समर्थन हो और विवेक नष्ट हो गया हो। महत्वाकांक्षा के इंद्रधनुष ने आँखों को अँधा और बुद्धि को नष्ट कर दिया हो। जब वैदिक काल से चले आ रहे राष्ट्रवाद की तुलना मुसोलिनी के राष्ट्रवाद से की जाए, मानववाद फासिज्म दिखाई दे ।  तुर्रा ये कि कहने वाले हैं कौन? यूरोप से लेकर एशिया तक क्रांति के नाम पर खूनी होली खेलने वाले मानवता को शर्मसार करने वाले दोगले और गद्दार कम्यूनिष्ट, वाह वाह वाह!

FREE SPEECH FOR TERROR-JIHAD

Free Speech, Freedom of Speech, JNU Debate, Shridev Sharma, Sridev Sharma

The JNU debate has outraged the patriotic people of India. They are shocked to see slogans supporting freedom of Kashmir and terrorists who wage jihad against sovereign India.

The Left sees such patriotic outrage and State action as violative of its Constitutional right, i.e. freedom of speech. Since the hanging of Afzal Guru, the 9th of February has become for JNUites, left and anti-national, a day to commemorate his martyrdom, and similar functions have been organized at the JNU campus to show solidarity year after year. For the first time this was shown on national news channels, and was ensued by police action in accordance with law.

The sloganeering that supported the cause of “Azadi” was definitely not in accordance with the freedom of speech and expression as guaranteed by the Constitution of India, under Article 19 (a). Such freedoms of speech and expression does not protect anything which challenges the sovereignty and integrity of the nation, and propagates and supports secessionist jihad. The expressions, speeches, and sloganeering seen at JNU were against the sovereignty and integrity of India and definitely against the public order, as they were supporting a condemned convict who was found guilty after due trial and after all legally available remedies were exhausted.

Freedom of Speech

JNU : A Ground to Aid Terror-Jihad

No one can ever say that the so-called Kashmiri freedom struggle is peaceful or innocent. We all know it for sure, that the freedom of Kashmir has primarily served as a cause to the Taliban, to Al-Qaida and to ISIS. It is a demonic war waged against India. Terror-jihadists want to free Kashmir from of the “clutches” of “Hindu” India.

JNU aiding Terror-Jihad

The Leftists on the campus of JNU are providing intellectual and ideological aid to this Kashmiri terror-jihad. As we all know, the ISIS flag is unfurled time and again on the land of Kashmir. Seen against this background, the slogan-shouting does not seem to be an innocent freedom of expression but rather constitutes support for a bloody and violent cause.

Could the State have remained a mute spectator to this activity, which is not only seditious but amounts to raising a rebellion to aid and abet treason, as it is an attempt to create public opinion in favor of secessionist and terror-jihadist agenda glorifying armed attacks on democracy’s highest institutions?

Patriotism as defined by the Communists

One can still give a benefit of doubt to the young students who are in their formative years and can be misled by any right or wrong revolutionary cause, but one cannot see the justification for senior-most leaders of the CPI and CPI (M) expressing their solidarity with this cause. Very slyly, solidarity is being shown to the cause of freedom of expression. But if one sees it in the light of real facts, then it is abundantly clear that the leaders were expressing their solidarity with the secessionist cause of the worldwide terror-jihad.

Under that doctrine

Though Communists justify that ideological struggle is of utmost importance against all dogmatic and sectarian traits, and denounce extremism as an expression of the petty prejudices and the lumpen elements in society, they see the democratically elected Modi government as “fascist”.  So naturally, they find themselves at liberty to invoke the doctrines they formulated during the Sino-India war of 1962. Under that doctrine, some of them wanted to help the enemy bring down the “bourgeois” democracy so that the red flag of Communists could fly high on the Indian skies. However, this only resulted in the break-up of the party. With this DNA in place, they are the only ones within the Indian political space who can find justification for adopting any means to find support, if they are taking on a “bourgeois” “fascist” government, and can take shelter in internationalism. According to them the “bourgeois” BJP is excessively communal and fascist in its outlook.

New Congress under Rahul inclined to secessionist ideologies and glorification of terrorists

Rahul Gandhi and his Congress Party are now openly showing solidarity with the cause of Afzal Guru and the freedom of Kashmir.  It has reached an extent where one of the former Home and Finance minister is openly expressing doubts about Afzal Guru’s role in the attack on the Parliament, although, while in power, they have deliberated upon that question for a long time before rejecting Guru’s mercy plea. In another similar development, Farooq Abdullah, who has been Minister in the same cabinet, suddenly says that the Kashmir issue should be resolved along the lines of the solution worked out for Ireland.

he has transformed congress

My personal opinion is that Rahul Gandhi and Arundahti Roy have similar views on almost every cause. One can refer to Arundahti Roy’s books and articles, and compare them with the speeches and statements of Rahul Gandhi to find the common thread. To me, he has transformed Congress thinking to the radical  doctrine of the Left. It is no more a “Congress” view but it is the rise and making of a new Congress party which represents the views of not objecting to secessionist chants, challenging the sovereignty and territorial integrity of India, and slowly preparing the Congress Party of his time to accept secessionist ideas in the name if neo-liberal internationalism over national unity. Such a Congress Party can support a cause of students who were wanting to divide India into pieces, free Kashmir and thump the back of Afzul Guru for his act of attacking the Parliament.

Of course, Rahul Gandhi must be too eager to take on the system, as he appears antagonized by the judicial system after his own trial is ordered by a Delhi Court, and the High Court and Supreme Court have declined quashing of the criminal proceedings, upholding the jurisdiction exercised by the trial court.

It seems Indian politics has entered into a most dangerous phase, where the national and political mainstreams are eagerly rushing to support anti-national and terrorists on campuses. As if that in not enough, they are teasing patriots, who are seething to see such shamelessly open demonstrations of treason, calling them fascist and enemies of free speech and expression.

Shridev Sharma

Yogasana and Dog-asana

Yogasana  and Dog-asana- Shridev Sharma

Dog and SitaRam are equal after Yogic Nirvilkap Samadhi.

Egoism

According to the philosophy of Yoga, the mind remains stuck in ordinary and mundane state as it is filled with impurities. First impurity according to Yogsutra is egoism. On small achievements one becomes sure of one’s greatness. One feels others are inferior creatures intellectually, mentally, socially, morally, and in many other ways. One becomes boastful. One stops listening to others or understanding that others too have a viewpoint. All this is because of egoism. And we all know when we see others doing it, what a terrible limitation it imposes on growth and on the progress of a person. But when we too indulge in egoism we seldom take notice. So Patanjali, the author of Yogsutra, sees it as an impurity and wants us to cleanse it and get rid of it in order to realize the potential of our true self.

Ignorance

Another impurity is ignorance. We tend to ignore and not take notice of our surroundings, circumstances, people, objects, plants, and a lot more. We fail to relate, to know, to appreciate, to understand, because we are so full of ego and sometimes we lack attention and focus. Ignorance hampers our personality; it mars our potential and performance. Ignorance is not lack of information. It is lack of awareness and sensitivity. It makes one lose one’s sensibilities. Ignorance stops one’s growth. So Patanjali, in his Yogsutra identifies it as one of the big impurities.

Desires

Then come desires. Desires are the driving force, but desires can cause disasters too, when one really is not sure what one wants or when one does know but can’t fulfill it. Sometime one does have desires that can’t be achieved. These situations lead to frustration and other distortions of personality. One can become seriously affected and impaired to perform in life. Combination of the ego, ignorance and irrational desires is fatal and can cause severe imbalance of personality.

Aversion

Aversion too, when it becomes unmanageable, is another major reason to feel deep mental discomfort. It is opposed to harmony, and the person can’t coexist with what he is averse to. Aversion finds its expression in many manners and causes grave consequences for a person in many ways. It can cause an attitude when a person becomes aversion-centric and distorted. Patanjali has identified it as one of reasons for distress, trouble, and anguish.

Tenacity

Tenacity of mind is dwarf-ness. It is stubbornness and rigidity that is opposed to the quality of versatility that makes one grow. A man with any fixed idea or notion can’t go further in life. It creates major obstruction when a person having tenacity gets fixed in the mundane. This kind of rigidity and narrowness is another reason for aversion. A mind, when gets over-bothered with too fixed an idea, and completely fails to see another viewpoint and appreciate anything on merits and objectivity, can’t grow beyond the mundane.

Yogasana and Dog-asana

So Patanjali’s idea is to create a person who could grow beyond all five limiting and troublesome blocks. His idea is of inner expansion and growth. A mind, which has outgrown aforesaid impurities, cannot be much bothered if yogic exercises are compared to dog stretching. After all dog too have same atman as people who are making comparisons. That’s where the beauty of yogic philosophy lies.

by SHRIDEV SHARMA

Patanjali’s Yogasutra vs Secular-Acharyas

Patanjalis Yogasutra vs Secular-acharyas- Shridev SharmaA debate on the true nature of yoga as professed in the Patanjali’s Yogasutra and a perspective into the Secular-acharyas approach.

Yoga-Sutra

Over a period of time yoga and yogasanas including pranayama (breathing exercises) have been greatly promoted across the globe. People across races, religions, languages and nationalities have practiced it, become followers and realized its positive impact on their lives.

While going through Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra, which is the principal philosophy of yoga, one admires that it is professed so human mind can attain balance and remain healthy.

According to Patanjali, one of the major instruments to attain it was by focusing on any likable form of God. Likability means any person following a form of god according to one’s belief and liking. Patanjali’s Yogasutra, in its Samadhi Padd, 32nd Sutra, talks of this as “Aek tattavābhyās”.

Debate on Yoga

It is beyond any doubt that practicing asana leads to a flexible and healthy body, and breathing exercises lead to de-stressing, healthy lungs, and plenty of oxygen to the brain, which energizes the person and improves focus, which can change and revolutionize a person completely.

So far as dhāraṇā, dhyāna and samādhi are concerned, everyone offering a prayer performs an act of focusing one’s mind in one’s own god, the god one believes in. That is the dhāranā and dhyāna of Yoga philosophy, which leads to closeness to god and subsequently to samādhi.

Secularism and Secular-acharyas

We have a new-found religion called “Secularism” in India. Monks of the Secular order, or Secular-acharyas believe in Negativity and their principal prayer is condemnation of Yoga. For this Order, focusing a little can expose them to deeply disturbing feelings and emptiness. It is better for their monastic order to introduce some positivity so they are not completely drowned in hollowness.

by SHRIDEV SHARMA

Nepal Earthquake and Human Safety

Nepal Earthquake

The recent Nepal Earthquake has once more drawn the attention of the entire humanity. In a matter of seconds, thousands of lives were lost and others who survived would go through an endless agony of having lost everything.

The tragedy after Nepal earthquake happened because new technologies to make habitats were applied mindlessly without due cautions to methodology of resisting earthquakes. It is noteworthy that while designing structures various loads i.e. Imposed loads, wind loads, seismic loads, snow loads and other loads are minimum working loads which should be taken into consideration for the purpose of structural design.

Nepal Earthquake: Who is Responsible?

No authority responsible for sanctioning drawings for any type of building, business dwelling, educational, industrial, institutional or office, mercantile, residential, or storage, should get approval, until its structure is designed by a competent structural engineer, who has factored in all the loads to achieve resistance in any eventuality, including earthquake.

In the critical seismic zones like zones IV and V, no building should be allowed to be occupied till a designated authority for structural safety has certified it. To avoid harassment and red tape, any registered structural engineer for the purpose should certify that structure as designed and executed in a manner addressing impact allowance. Avoiding the same should be made to attract the harshest penal provisions as public lives are endangered.

In South Asia, after Bhuj, this is the largest catastrophe in the entire region. With abysmal quality of disaster management techniques and inadequate medical facilities and response, it becomes imperative that measures prescribed by earthquake engineering should be strictly adhered to as we have witnessed that in the eventuality of an earthquake, any structure can act worse than any weapon.

It is noteworthy that earthquake engineering takes into account maximum considered earthquake model mass, model participation factor, modes of vibration, mode shape co-efficient, natural period and other such parameters including response reduction factor, response spectrum, and structural response factors. Further, structural engineers take into consideration tectonic features, natural geological formations in the bedrock in the earth’s crust revealing regions characterized by structural features, such as dislocation, distortion, faults, folding, thrusts, volcanoes, with their age of formation, which are directly involved in the earths movement or quake resulting in the above earlier mentioned consequences. To achieve this, dynamic response of the structure, attach increment of time, when its base is subjected to a specific ground motion time history. Zone factor is another important criteria to obtain the design spectrum depending on the perceived maximum seismic risk, characterized by maximum considered earthquake in the zone in which the structure id located.

Once a competent engineer designs a structure with the help of highly evolved softwares, another challenge comes on, i.e., to select the right materials including steel, and design the right concrete mix to execute the structure in accordance with the design, to achieve the stability and resistance in the event of seismic activity. There are many tests including cube tests, UPV, hammer test, core cutting, etc. to see whether the concrete has achieved the required strength as per the required design specifications or not.

If appropriate authorities in Nepal would have ensured the implementation of this complex sounding but rather easy methodology, this enormous human tragedy may have been mitigated to a great extent.

This should at least act as a wake up call for all authorities responsible for granting sections and managing disasters.

SHRIDEV SHARMA’s note to readers: The above extends from my study of the Act, to better understand its objectives, its implementation and impact on the Real Estate industry, the government and society at large. It is not, and does not attempt to be an analysis. To read the complete text of the Act, and news about related events, please see Related Links.

Housing Sector in India, GDP and Growth

Housing Sector in India, GDP and Growth, shridev sharma

 The Economic Survey 2015, has focused on creation of Real Estate Investment Trust. A study by NCAER shows why policy intervention to resolve various problems currently faced by the housing sector in India is an urgent need.

 The National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) has conducted a study on “the impact of investments in the housing sector in India on GDP and employment in the Indian economy”. The study was supported by DFID and Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation.

According to its context of study, the urban population has increased from 286.1 million in 2001 to 377.1 million in 2011. The number of towns in the corresponding period increased from 5161 to 7935. No appropriate government has planned to meet this demand. This resulted in unauthorized hosing in various forms.

The National Council of Applied Economic Research - Housing Sector in India

Referring to the report of the Technical Group for 2007-2012 for 11th Five Year Plan, the study notes that during this period, a shortage of 24.71 million housing units was estimated, whereas the Technical group for 12th plan 2012-2017 estimated that during the period shortage may not increase if the rate of growth in housing stock continues to be higher then the growth in number of households.

As per national accounts prepared by the Central Statistical Office for 2009-2010, the contribution to GDP by the construction sector was 8.2 per cent, and real estate, ownership of dwelling units, and business services contributed to another 11.4 percent thereby contributing to nearly one -fifth of India’s GDP. The study assessed the inter-industry linkages of housing investment, impact of housing investment on income and employment generation, inter linkages between housing, construction, and construction material and to the practicable extent the real estate sector.

Key findings of this most valuable study suggests residential construction (housing sector in India) accounts for 1.24 percent of economy, 1 percent of GDP, and 6.86 per cent of employment.

Housing sector in India is fourth largest employment generator.

For every lakh invested in this sector, 2.69 new jobs are created in the economy. A unit of increase in the final expenditure in the housing would generate additional income as high as three times the income generated within the housing sector in India itself. Every additional rupee invested in the housing sector will add Rs. 1.54 to the GDP and with household expenditure considered, this is going to add Rs. 2.84. For every rupee invested in creation of housing, Rs 0.12 gets collected as indirect taxes.

Surprisingly this study seems to have escaped the attention of the Economic Survey 2015, which only focused on creation of real estate investment trust and did not attempt at any policy intervention to resolve various problems currently faced by the housing sector.

SHRIDEV SHARMA’s note to readers: The above extends from my study of the Act, to better understand its objectives, its implementation and impact on the Real Estate industry, the government and society at large. It is not, and does not attempt to be an analysis. To read the complete text of the Act, and news about related events, please see Related Links.

The Economic Survey 2015 and Outlook for Housing Market in India

Economic Survey 2015 and Outlook for Housing Market in IndiaThe Economic survey 2015 has spelt out financial market stability, yet expresses concerns over tentative growth in construction and mining sector, and has identified investment in the infrastructure sector as crucial for the growth to strengthen further.

According the Economic Survey 2015, structurally important economies such as China, Russia, Euro area and Japan face uncertain prospects, thereby affecting global growth and investment outlook. Meanwhile, the sharp decline in oil prices has diminished fortunes of oil exporting countries that can affect economic activity adversely.

It further says in the light of the Government’s commitment to reform, along with the improvements in the price and external sector scenarios including the possibility of international oil prices remaining generally benign, the outlook for domestic macroeconomic parameters is generally optimistic, notwithstanding the uncertainties that could also arise from an increase in the interest rates in United States and situation prevailing in Greece within euro zone.

Economic Survey 2015 & Assumptions

Assuming normal monsoons, better prospects in the world economy that could provide impetus to higher exports for Indian products and services, a growth of around 8.5 per cent is in the realm of possibility in 2015 -2016.

This overview clearly indicates that in coming few quarters a robust sales activity in housing market is about to start. The present emphasis of RBI to keep inflation in control is bound to bring inflation under the required comfortable levels. Thereafter with the help of policy measures, the housing sector in India is about to witness a quantum leap in demand.

SHRIDEV SHARMA’s note to readers: The above extends from my study of the Act, to better understand its objectives, its implementation and impact on the Real Estate industry, the government and society at large. It is not, and does not attempt to be an analysis. To read the complete text of the Act, and news about related events, please see Related Links.

Appointment of Committees, and Option to Lease in the Land Acquisition Act 2013

Appointment of Committees, and Option to Lease in the Land Acquisition Act 2013

A major feature of the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation, and Resettlement Act, 2013, (Land Acquisition Act 2013) is to provide for the establishment of National and State committees for reviewing and monitoring the implementation of rehabilitation and resettlement schemes and plans.

To provide speedy disposal of disputes relating to land acquisition, compensation, rehabilitation and resettlement, “the Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Authority shall be established under a presiding officer”.

The Authority shall not be bound by any code of civil procedure but shall be guided by the principles of natural justice. Subject to the provisions of the Act and any rules made thereunder, the Authority shall have the power to regulate its own procedure. Jurisdiction of civil courts is barred, except as provided in Para 7 below.

Any person interested who has not accepted the award may, by written application to the Collector, require that the matter be referred by the Collector for dealing with any objection arising out of any procedure. The Collector shall make a reference to the Authority within thirty (30) days. If he fails to make such reference within the stipulated time, the applicant may apply to the Authority requesting it to direct the Collector to make such reference.

While determining the amount of compensation to be awarded for the land acquired, including rehabilitation and resettlement entitlements, the Authority shall take into consideration whether the Collector has followed the parameters set out under Sections 26 to 30 and the provisions under Chapter 5 of the Act.

In addition to the market value of land, as provided above, the Authority shall, in every case, award an amount calculated at the rate of twelve (12) per cent per annum on such market value for the period commencing on and from the date of publication of the preliminary notification to the date of taking over possession of the land, or the date of the award, whichever is earlier. A dispute over apportionment may be referred to the Authority by the Collector.

Any person or requiring body aggrieved by the award passed by the Authority may file an appeal to the High Court.

The appropriate Government shall be at liberty to withdraw from the acquisition of any land of which possession has not yet been taken, after paying for damages arising out of, or suffered by the owner in consequence of the notice or of any proceedings.

No change from the purpose, or related purpose, for which the land was originally sought to be acquired shall be allowed. If any land remains unutilised for a period of five (5) years from the date of taking over the possession, the same shall be returned to the original owner/owners or their legal heirs.

Whenever the ownership of any land acquired under this Act is transferred to any person for a consideration, without any development having taken place on such land, forty (40) per cent of the appreciated land value shall be shared amongst the persons from whom lands were acquired, or their legal heirs, in proportion to the value at which the lands were acquired, within a period of five (5) years from the date of acquisition.

However, for any public purpose/s referred to in Section 2(1), notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the appropriate Government shall, wherever possible, be free to exercise the option of taking the land on lease, instead of by acquisition.

SHRIDEV SHARMA’s note to readers: The above extends from my study of the Act, to better understand its objectives, its implementation and impact on the Real Estate industry, the government and society at large. It is not, and does not attempt to be an analysis. To read the complete text of the Act, and news about related events, please see Related Links.

Land Acquisition Act 2013 – Disabling and Restricting Government from Acquisition

Land Acquisition Act 2013 It is noteworthy that the Land Acquisition Act 2013 (Act), has a far and wide operation. It includes:

“…strategic purposes relating to naval, military, air force, and armed forces of the Union, including central paramilitary forces or any work vital to national security or defence of India or state police, safety of the people…”

The Land Acquisition Act 2013 says the provisions relating to land acquisition, compensation, rehabilitation and resettlement shall apply when the appropriate government acquires land for its own use, hold and control. For these purposes also the Government has to consult the concerned Panchayat, Municipality, or Municipal Corporation at the village or ward level.

The Government needs to inform local people in the local language for commencement of consultation and of the social impact studies in a provided manner. The Government shall ensure that adequate representation has been given to the representatives of Panchayat, Gram Sabha, Municipalities or Municipal Corporation at the stage of carrying out the Social Impact Assessment study. The appropriate Government shall ensure the completion of this study within six months and it shall be made available to the public.

Now in this Assessment it will be decided as to whether the proposed acquisition serves public purpose, estimation of affected and likely to be displaced families, extent of lands, public and private houses, settlements and other common properties likely to be affected by the proposed acquisition, whether the extent of land proposed for acquisition is to the absolute bare minimum extent needed for the project, whether land acquisition at an alternate place has been considered and found not feasible, study of social impact of the project, and the nature and costs of addressing them, and the impact of these costs on the overall costs of the project vis-à-vis the benefits of the project.

While undertaking a Social Impact Assessment study even for the strategic purpose of the nation beside the above, the Government shall, amongst other things, take into consideration the impact that the project is likely to have on various components such as livelihood, of affected families, public and community properties, assets and infrastructure – particularly roads, public transport, drainage, sanitation, sources of drinking water, sources of water for cattle, community ponds, grazing land plantation, public utilities such as post offices, fair price shops, food storage godowns, electricity supply, health care facilities, schools, educational or training facilities, anganwadies, children parks, places of worship, land for traditional tribal institutions and burial and cremation grounds.

The appropriate Government shall require the Authority conducting the Social Impact Assessment study to prepare a Social Impact Management Plan listing the improvement measures required to be undertaken for addressing the impact for a specific component referred above. For Social Impact Assessment, Government shall ensure that a public hearing is held to ascertain the views of the affected family. Thereafter it shall ensure that the Study Report and the Social Impact Management Plan is made public.

Subsequently, this Report is to be evaluated by an independent multi-disciplinary Expert Group consisting of two non-official social scientists, two representative of local bodies, two experts on rehabilitation, a technical expert in the subject relating to the project. A person from amongst the group may be nominated as its Chairman. If the Expert group constituted is of the opinion that the project does not serve the public purpose or that the social costs and adverse social impacts of the project outweigh the potential benefits, it shall make a recommendation within two months from the date of its constitution to the effect that the project shall be abandoned forthwith and no further steps to acquire the land will be initiated in respect of the same.

In the light of above, the powers of the appropriate Government to acquire land in urgency is provided by Section 40 (Land Acquisition Act 2013 ), which is restricted to the minimum area required for the defence of India or national security or for any emergency arising out of natural calamities or any other emergency with the approval of Parliament.

Such powers too shall be exercised by the Collector after publishing a notice stating that the Government intends to take possession of the land and that claims to compensations and rehabilitation and resettlement for all interests in such land may be made to him. Public notice is for not to be less than 30 days and not more then six months so as to enable all persons interested in the land to appear in person and to state the nature of their respective interests in the land and the amount and particulars of their claims to compensation for such interests, their claims to rehabilitation and resettlement along with their objections, if any. Before taking possession of any land acquired under urgency provisions the Collector shall render eighty percent of the compensation.

Appropriate Government shall under Section 19 of the Act (Land Acquisition Act 2013), publish a summary of the rehabilitation and resettlement scheme after declaration of an area as resettlement area for the purpose of rehabilitation and resettlement of affected families. Only after the acquiring body deposits an amount in full or part, as may be prescribed by the appropriate Government towards the cost of it and after the date of publication of the preliminary notification under Section 11(1).

If any person contravenes any of the provision relating to payment of compensation or rehabilitation and resettlement, every such person shall be liable to a punishment of six months which may extend to three years or with fine or with both.

Undoubtedly for the defence of India or national security or for any emergency arising out of natural calamities or in any other emergency, even with the approval of Parliament, doing an acquisition will be the toughest task.

SHRIDEV SHARMA’s note to readers: The above extends from my study of the Act, to better understand its objectives, its implementation and impact on the Real Estate industry, the government and society at large. It is not, and does not attempt to be an analysis. To read the complete text of the Act, and news about related events, please see Related Links.

The Land Acquisition Act 2013, Boon for Speculators

Land Acquisition Act 2013The history of acquiring immovable property goes back to the Bengal Regulation 1 of 1824, which was enacted by the British East India Company. Subsequently, there were multiple enactments by different presidencies which were replaced by the Act of 1870. This Act too was amended in 1894, and existed until “The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013” (also refers as ” The Land Acquisition Act 2013 “) replaced it.

The preamble to the Land Acquisition Act 2013 reads:

…to ensure, in consultation with institutions of local self-government and Gram Sabhas established under the Constitution, a humane, participative, informed and transparent process for land acquisition for industrialisation, development of essential infrastructural facilities and urbanisation with the least disturbance to the owners of the land and other affected families and provide just and fair compensation to the affected families whose land has been acquired or proposed to be acquired or are affected by such acquisition and make adequate provisions for such affected persons for their rehabilitation and resettlement and for ensuring that the cumulative outcome of compulsory acquisition should be that affected persons become partners in development leading to an improvement in their post acquisition social and economic status and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Subsequent to the Act, Bill No. 20 of 2014 was introduced by the present government in the Lok Sabha. The bill became a subject matter for controversies and agitations, as the amendments proposed in the Bill were termed anti-farmers. The government seems to be softening up while going forward with the amendments.

One needs to go deeper into the provisions of the Act to understand the far-reaching negative implications of the Act on vital developments of the country. The Atomic Energy Act, 1962; The Land Acquisition (Mines) Act, 1885; The Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978; The National Highways Act, 1956; The Petroleum and Minerals Pipelines (Acquisition of Right of User in Land) Act, 1962; The Relinquishing and Acquisition of Immovable Property Act, 1952; The Coal Bearing Areas Acquisition and Development Act, 1957; The Electricity Act, 2003; The Railways Act, 1989; among other Acts, were incorporated under the Fourth Schedule of this Act. According to Section 105(1), subject to subsection (3), the provisions of this Act shall not apply to enactments relating to Land Acquisition specified in Schedule 4.

Subsection (3) of The Land Acquisition Act 2013 specifies that:

The Central Government shall, by notification, within one year from the date of commencement of this Act, direct that any of the provisions of this Act relating to the determination of compensation in accordance with the First Schedule and rehabilitation and resettlement specified in the Second and Third Schedule, being beneficial to the affected families, shall apply to the cases of land acquisition under the enactments specified in the Fourth Schedule, or shall apply with such exceptions or modifications that do not reduce the compensation or dilute the provisions of this Act relating to the compensation or rehabilitation, and resettlement as may be specified in the notification, as the case may be (emphasis added).

In short, to establish any atomic energy plant, or to construct a metro railway, or for making a national highway or for laying out a petroleum or gas pipeline, or erecting power transmission lines, the government would be required to pay an award in rural areas of the market value of the land multiplied by the factor specified, plus the value of assets attached to the land and building/s, and a solatium. The final award in urban areas is similarly determined.

Thus, on an approximation, the government should be ready to cough up up to about five times the market value of the land under acquisition for undertaking any project, besides providing for the rehabilitation, resettlement and entitlement for the landowners and families whose lives are wholly dependent on the land acquired, as well as the infrastructure and amenities.

The powers relating to the rehabilitation and resettlement of this Act shall also apply when a private company purchases land equal to or more than such limits in the rural or urban areas, as may be prescribed by the appropriate government, through private negotiation with owners of the land, the cost of which can be quantified into a monetary amount, which the collector shall allow to deposit into the account in complete satisfaction of the obligation.

One can image the scenario in the areas earmarked for laying petro or gas pipelines, or putting up an industrial corridor, or making national highways, if some shrewd players register the land at manifold the current market value. As per the prescribed formula of the Act of 2013, this will escalate the compensation to unacceptable heights.

The government needs to seriously make an endeavour in order to understand how much land it needs to acquire for the aforesaid vital infrastructure, and, in view of non-regulation of speculation activities, what are going to be the implications on all such upcoming projects.

SHRIDEV SHARMA’s note to readers: The above extends from my study of the Act, to better understand its objectives, its implementation and impact on the Real Estate industry, the government and society at large. It is not, and does not attempt to be an analysis. To read the complete text of the Act, and news about related events, please see Related Links.